球探体育

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从“马踏飞燕”看铜雕马的设计与创新

球探体育 FABUSHIJIAN:2019-07-11 18:10 | FANGWENCISHU:1531

球探体育在古代战争中一直有着举足轻重的地位,而且一直是人们心目中“神骏”一词的代名词,因此古往今来,爱马之人多若繁星,从帝王将相到艺术家,甚至普通平民,莫不对其宠爱有加。而汉代及唐朝正是两个将马爱得如痴如醉的朝代。汉代的郊祀歌中便有颂扬天马的章句,唐太宗的昭陵六骏更是将爱马的狂热表现得淋漓尽致。唯其如此,汉唐两代对于马的艺术刻划也是神形兼备,曲尽其妙。先说唐代,这是一个画马名家辈出的时代,从唐初的江都王绪,到稍后的曹霸,再到韩干,代有才人,各领风骚数十年。其中尤其是韩干,因其传世作品《照夜白图》构图洗练,神采内蕴而名噪古今,以至有许多神乎其技的传说。至于汉代对马的形象刻划,过去人们曾通过汉代的画像石、画像砖、墓俑,以及汉墓壁画等载体有所了解。例如秦始皇陵兵马俑坑出土的马俑所表现出的艺术成就,便早己令世人惊叹不已。不过这时她们多是实用骑乘的面目出现,多多少少还是限制了艺术家们艺术想像力的发挥。只有当1969年甘肃武威雷台东汉墓中那件“马踏飞燕”铜雕横空出世以后,我们才真正地领悟到了,汉代的艺术家对于马的精髓的理解已到了何等的程度!而其对艺术构思的运用又到了何等巧妙的地步!

奔马群铜雕

奔马群铜雕

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铸铜工艺-马雕塑

铸铜工艺-马雕塑

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有关“马踏飞燕”这一艺术造型的生活源泉,曾有人做过一些推测。但是有关她的艺术渊源却无人论及.那么她仅仅只是出于一时的灵感,还是有着深厚的艺术积淀呢?1978年湖北云梦睡虎地秦汉墓葬的发掘151,为我们提供了很好的答案。云梦睡虎地M44出土的一件漆扁壶,在黑色的漆地上,扁壶两面各以红、褐漆绘有一幅动物图案。其中一面是一头肥壮的球探体育,昂首直视,四蹄踞地,尾巴下垂,稳若泰山;另一面则是一匹奔马和一只飞雁。这同一件器物上一动一静的两个画面,形成了强烈的对比,己可见漆画作者的颇具匠心。然而,如果仔细地加以揣摩,作者这一构思的精髓还不仅仅局限于此。且看与牛相对应的动感画面,其中心位置为一匹奔驰的马所占据,马身作褐色,而肩、臀、四蹄等着力的部位则用红色加以衬托,更显其矫健。只见她马首低垂,曲项展背,奋力疾驰;四蹄翻飞,三足腾空,仅以左前足着地,对侧步的特征亦十分明显。整个作品己可称得上是形神兼备。

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