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顶礼佛塔 得如实道——佛教艺术中的佛塔及形式

FABUSHIJIAN:2019-07-23 10:21 | FANGWENCISHU:1175

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佛塔的由来

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铸铜贴金三宝佛

铸铜贴金三宝佛

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如来佛祖铜雕像

如来佛祖铜雕像

佛塔的出现

西元前五世纪,佛教虽已在印度传布,但当时西北印度为波斯王朝所统治,至前四世纪亚历山大东征,西北印度犍陀罗地区成为希腊化文化,直到孔雀王朝(Mauryan)统一印度北部,佛教以其教义──慈悲、平等、不杀……,感动了当时印度不同种族与阶级的人;尤其在阿育王(Asoka)征服南印度的羯陵迦之后,更惊觉战争所带来的残酷与悲惨,因此大力宣扬佛教的教义,在国境中大量开凿石窟、树立石柱、刊刻诏令,建造佛塔。所以阿育王时期,可说是佛教艺术史上的第一个重要时期;从此时期一直到佛像出现的一世纪之间,美术史上称之为无像时代(Aniconic Period)。

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佛塔蕴含的意义

在此时期佛教徒秉持佛陀不对相执着的遗训,所以这时的艺术表现,大部份是藉由建筑物而呈现,如石窟与佛塔,尤其是佛窣堵波四面陀栏那(门架)上的本生(Jataka)故事浮雕球探体育。佛教徒运用象征与隐喻的方式,透过佛塔形式与雕刻,来表达对于宇宙、生命与教义的看法。窣堵波最早的意义,虽然依当时的习俗,世人是以骨灰堆来看待,但它的含义实则远已超过这个世俗意义。“其(窣堵波)造形,一说是模仿蛋形,故称安达(anda),内部舍利子有如生命之源。一说是模仿佛钵,圆冢的基座乃是佛座垂下的袈裟。最普遍的看法则是由古代墓葬形式发展而来,象征佛的涅槃。”所以就当时的意义来看,佛塔即是佛陀的另一个象征意义,而礼敬佛塔即是礼敬佛陀。

佛塔的形式

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三号塔较一号塔为小,塔丘曾出土过一个舍利石函,上面刻有阿育王时期十位高僧的名字。二号塔与三号大小相近,但无塔刹,平头其中有两个舍利罐,刻着舍利弗与摩诃目犍连的名字,装饰也比较简单。据《根本说一切有部毗奈耶杂事》中说:“佛言应可用砖两重作基,次安塔身上安覆钵,随意高下上置平头,高一二尺,方二三尺,准量大小中竖轮竿;次着相轮,其相轮重数,或一二三四乃至十三;次安宝瓶。长者自念:唯舍利子得作如此窣睹波耶?为余亦得。即往白佛,佛告长者,若为如来造窣睹波者,应可如前具足而作。若为独觉勿安宝瓶;若阿罗汉相轮四重,不还至三,一来应二,预流应一;凡夫善人但可平头无有轮盖,如世尊说如是应作。”这是在经典中对于佛塔的明确规范,对于塔刹相轮的重数可从一至十三不等,如来舍利塔当作十三重,阿罗汉圣者四重,三果圣者三重,初果圣者一重,凡夫善人有平头而无相轮。其中“若为独觉勿安宝瓶”是说若为缘觉圣人所建之塔,相轮的重数亦为十三重,但并不安置宝瓶。“宝瓶”在《大唐西域记》中,当时玄奘法师在印度菩提迦耶,见到大菩提寺上的相轮时称为“庵摩罗果”。然而,印度早期的窣堵波,可能不像经典中所说的规范,也没有安置宝瓶;但是在大乘佛法兴起以来,各地建造佛塔确是完全根据经典所制,而且建塔也不限于佛舍利塔。据载,波斯匿王曾取佛陀爪发立塔。在《六度集经.儒童受决经》也记载,长者子贤干于定光佛前以微柴插地立刹建塔,感得佛陀成道时授记的果报。

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